Street Survival - Advanced Defensive Driving


Traffic Lights

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☠️☠️ Out of all the scenarios on the road, this is the one that tops the list in terms of accidents.

The reasons for this will be well highlighted in the sub-sections that follow:

☠️ Alert:

🛈 Info:

? Questions:

Dangers Intersection Traffic Lights


An amber traffic light is often the most dangerous as drivers think this is the last opportunity to cross, and may even accelerate to get across, resulting in higher collision speeds.


One of the biggest mistakes on the road is to assume that if the traffic light is red for adjacent traffic, or alternatively, green for you, that it is safe to go.

This section will scrutinize reasons why drivers contravene a red light, along with it's inherent perils.

Beat Light

Unfortunately, a common occurrence where a driver tries to cross at the last second on a red light, many times with drastic consequences.

Too Early

Some try and anticipate the light changing, but jump the gun before it changes.

4 Way Stop

When all traffic lights are either out or flashing, then please treat as a 4 Way stop.

Even then, still exercise extreme caution before crossing.

Following Others

Never assume that you are free to go just because others are going. Always check for yourself that it is safe to do so.


Always anticipate that the other driver won’t have seen you and already plan an escape route.


When there is a lack of concentration, for whatever reason, a driver may mix up the actions for the colors of the traffic lights, stopping on green and going on red.


Some are chancer’s and try to sneak around a corner on a red light in the face of impending traffic. Keep on the lookout for these ones.


It is frustrating when progress is blocked by a solid line of traffic across an intersection. Thus, when there is a gap in the line, a driver may take the chance to cross, even in the face of a red light.


Be alert to and give way to emergency vehicles, which normally signal their presence accompanied by a siren.


Be extra cautious in slippery conditions and allow added space for error.


Someone hasty will be prepared to forego normal precautions and up the risk level for others.


Before entering an intersection, be on the watch for those traveling at a speed that it either too slow or too fast. Both are a hazard to other motorists.


Due to size and momentum, especially if fully loaded, trucks pose a heightened danger at intersections.

Feeder Arrow

Following a feeder arrow can cause the oncoming traffic to think that they can also proceed forward which gives rise to an accident scenario.

Furthermore, when the feeder arrow changes to a solid green light, this means that the oncoming traffic can proceed, but the those in the turning lane may think they still have exclusive turning access.


Oncoming traffic crossing your path presents various scenarios that are susceptible to collisions. This section examines each of these.

Beat Light

People will always take a chance to see if they can beat the light and cross at the very last second. Never assume that once the light changes you are free to go.

Take Chance

There will always be those on the road trying to take a gap and put others at risk.


Doing a U-Turn at an intersection poses a danger as it is by nature a slower maneuver.

Following Others

Be careful when there is a line of oncoming cars ahead turning across your path, expect that each driver may think they are clear to go.


Common sense doesn’t always prevail on the streets, therefore never assume that others will always do what is right.


Take note of common areas where vehicles potentially crossing our path are hidden from view.


In slippery conditions, be on the lookout for vehicles traveling above the safe limit and ensure that you keep your distance.


A hasty driver is prepared to take a risk where he or she otherwise wouldn’t.


Slow down when approaching an intersection, but do not go to the other extreme of crossing an intersection too slowly, as that also poses a danger to other drivers.

Go through both the 'fast' and 'slow' sections of the training video.

Same Direction

Just because a vehicle is traveling in the same direction as you through an intersection, doesn’t mean that they aren’t a threat.

This section highlights some of the tricks that drivers get up to.

Straight - Both

When traveling in the same direction across an intersection, one driver crosses over into the adjacent lane of another motorist.

Straight - One

This is where vehicles traveling in the same direction across an intersection and one driver turns across the path of an adjacent driver.

Turning - Both

In this scenario, both vehicles are turning through an intersection and in doing so, one driver crosses over the into the lane of an adjacent driver.

Take Chance

Because of impatience or utter disregard, some take a chance to get ahead, however in doing so put others at peril.


Before harsh braking to stop on a red light, check to your rear for any vehicles approaching at speed.

Depending on circumstances, it may sometimes be safer to run a red light.

☠️ Dangers associated with traffic lights

While traffic lights play a crucial role in regulating traffic flow and improving safety, there are some potential dangers associated with them. It's important to be aware of these risks and exercise caution when approaching and interacting with traffic lights. Here are a few potential dangers:

  • Red-light running: One of the significant dangers associated with traffic lights is drivers running red lights. Some drivers may disregard the red signal and proceed through the intersection, leading to a high risk of collisions with cross-traffic or pedestrians. Red-light running can result from driver distraction, impatience, or intentional disregard for traffic laws.

  • Intersection collisions: Intersections controlled by traffic lights can still be sites of accidents, especially when drivers fail to yield or make improper turns. Rear-end collisions can occur if drivers are not attentive and fail to stop in time when the light changes from green to red. Additionally, left-turn collisions can happen if drivers misjudge the timing or fail to yield to oncoming traffic.

  • Intersection congestion: Heavy traffic volumes at intersections with traffic lights can lead to congestion and delays. This congestion can increase the risk of accidents, especially if drivers become impatient, engage in aggressive driving behavior, or make unsafe maneuvers in an attempt to beat the signal.

  • Pedestrian hazards: Traffic lights are designed to include pedestrian signals, but there can still be dangers for pedestrians. Drivers who fail to yield to pedestrians in crosswalks or make turns without properly checking for pedestrians can put walkers at risk. Pedestrians must remain cautious and ensure they have a clear right of way before crossing, even when they have a signal.

  • Malfunctioning lights: Occasionally, traffic lights may experience technical issues, such as power failures or signal malfunctions. When this happens, it can lead to confusion among drivers and pedestrians, potentially resulting in accidents. It's important for drivers to exercise extra caution and follow any temporary traffic control measures or instructions provided by authorities in such situations.

To mitigate these dangers, it is crucial for drivers to adhere to traffic laws and regulations, obey traffic signals, and be alert and focused while approaching and passing through intersections. Pedestrians should use designated crosswalks and obey pedestrian signals. Regular maintenance and monitoring of traffic lights by local authorities can also help ensure their proper functioning and reduce the risk of accidents.

☠️ How to decide whether to go or stop on an amber traffic light

Deciding whether to go or stop at an amber (yellow) traffic light depends on your location, speed, and the specific traffic situation. Traffic laws and regulations can vary by country and region, but here are some general guidelines to help you make the decision:

  • Yellow Light Meaning: In most places, a yellow traffic light is a warning that the light is about to turn red. It signals that you should prepare to stop unless it's unsafe to do so.

  • Location: If you're close to the intersection and it's safe to stop without causing a rear-end collision, it's usually best to stop when you encounter a yellow light.

  • Speed: If you're traveling at a high speed and you're too close to the intersection to safely stop, it may be safer to proceed through the intersection. However, you should not accelerate to "beat" the red light.

  • Following Distance: Consider the vehicle following you. If you stop abruptly, will the vehicle behind you be able to stop safely? If it's unsafe to stop suddenly, it might be better to proceed through the intersection.

  • Intersection Situation: Evaluate the intersection. Is it clear of pedestrians and other vehicles? If the intersection is congested or you see pedestrians, it's usually safer to stop.

  • Weather Conditions: Consider weather conditions. In wet or slippery conditions, it may take longer to stop safely, so factor this into your decision.

  • Traffic Behind You: If there is a vehicle very close behind you, stopping suddenly could cause a rear-end collision. In such cases, it might be safer to proceed.

  • Left Turns: If you're making a left turn at an intersection with a yellow light, be cautious. Left turns often involve yielding to oncoming traffic, so stopping may be the safest option.

  • Time of Day: Consider the time of day and visibility. In low-light conditions, such as at night, it may be harder for other drivers to see you stop suddenly.

  • Traffic Laws: Familiarize yourself with local traffic laws and regulations. Some areas have specific rules regarding how to handle yellow lights.

In general, the primary concern when deciding whether to go or stop at an amber traffic light should be safety. Always prioritize the safety of yourself, your passengers, and others on the road. If you're unsure, it's safer to err on the side of caution and stop when you encounter a yellow light, provided it can be done safely without causing a hazard to other drivers.

🛈 What to do when a traffic light flashes red

A flashing red traffic light indicates that you must come to a complete stop before proceeding. When faced with a flashing red light, follow these guidelines:

  • Stop Completely: Come to a complete stop at the stop line or before entering the intersection. Treat a flashing red light the same way you would treat a regular stop sign.

  • Check for Cross Traffic: Look in all directions to ensure that there is no oncoming traffic from other directions. Confirm that the intersection is clear before proceeding.

  • Yield to Other Vehicles: If there are other vehicles already in the intersection or approaching from other directions, yield the right of way to them.

  • Proceed with Caution: Once you have come to a complete stop, checked for traffic, and determined that it is safe to proceed, you may proceed through the intersection.

It's important to note that a flashing red light should be treated as a stop sign. The main difference between a regular stop sign and a flashing red light is that the flashing red light may indicate a malfunction or special conditions, such as during late-night hours when traffic is lighter.

Always exercise caution and follow the rules of the road when encountering a flashing red traffic light. If you are uncertain about the reason for the flashing red light or if it seems to be malfunctioning, contact local authorities or traffic control services to report the issue. In some cases, traffic signals may be programmed to flash red during certain times or under specific conditions, such as when a pedestrian activates a crosswalk signal. Always adhere to local traffic laws and regulations.

🛈 What to do when a traffic light flashes yellow

When a traffic light is flashing yellow, it indicates that you should proceed through the intersection with caution. A flashing yellow light serves as a warning that you should be aware of the intersection and be prepared to yield the right of way if necessary. Here's what to do when you encounter a flashing yellow traffic light:

  • Proceed with Caution: Approach the intersection with caution. Slow down and be prepared to come to a stop if needed.

  • Yield to Oncoming Traffic: Be aware of oncoming traffic from other directions. If there is oncoming traffic, pedestrians, or cyclists with the right of way, you must yield to them.

  • Check for Cross Traffic: Look in all directions to ensure that the intersection is clear. Check for any vehicles, pedestrians, or cyclists that may be crossing your path.

  • Adjust Your Speed: Adjust your speed based on the conditions of the intersection. If there is a potential hazard, it's important to be able to stop safely.

  • Be Prepared to Stop: Although you are allowed to proceed through the intersection, be prepared to come to a stop if the situation changes, or if there are unexpected hazards.

  • Follow Local Regulations: Always follow the rules and regulations specific to your location. Local traffic laws may provide additional guidance on how to handle flashing yellow lights.

It's important to note that the specific meaning and use of flashing yellow lights can vary by region, so it's crucial to be familiar with the local traffic laws and regulations. In some cases, flashing yellow lights may be used at intersections with pedestrian crosswalks to indicate that drivers should be cautious and yield to pedestrians.

Exercise caution, stay attentive, and follow the rules of the road when encountering a flashing yellow traffic light to ensure safe and efficient traffic flow.

? Can I turn the corner on a red traffic light?

The ability to turn at a red traffic light varies depending on local traffic laws and regulations. In many places, you are allowed to make a right turn on a red light under specific conditions. Here are the general guidelines for making a right turn on a red light:

Right Turn on Red:

  • In many locations, if you are at a red light and want to turn right, you are typically allowed to do so after coming to a complete stop.

  • Ensure there is no oncoming traffic from the left or pedestrians crossing the intersection.

  • Yield to any oncoming traffic or pedestrians with the right of way.

Left Turn on Red from a One-Way Street to Another One-Way Street:

  • Some locations allow making a left turn on a red light when turning from a one-way street onto another one-way street.

  • Check for oncoming traffic from the left and yield to pedestrians.

It's important to note that these rules may not apply universally, and there can be variations based on local laws. Additionally, some intersections may have specific signs indicating whether turns on red are permitted or prohibited.

General Considerations:

  • Always follow posted signs and signals at the intersection.

  • Be aware of local regulations that may restrict turns on red at specific intersections.

  • Exercise caution and yield the right of way to other vehicles and pedestrians.

If you are unsure about the rules regarding turning on a red light in a specific area, consult the local traffic laws or contact local authorities for clarification. Adhering to traffic regulations helps ensure the safety of all road users and contributes to efficient traffic flow.

? What is the typical drivers reaction time to traffic lights?

The typical reaction time for drivers to traffic lights can vary depending on several factors, including the driver's alertness, age, and level of distraction. However, general estimates provide a range for average reaction times:

Typical Driver Reaction Time

  • Average Reaction Time: The average driver reaction time to traffic lights is typically between 1 and 1.5 seconds. This time represents the period from when the driver perceives the traffic light change (such as from green to yellow or yellow to red) to when they begin to react (such as pressing the brake pedal).

Factors Influencing Reaction Time

  • Alertness and Fatigue: A well-rested and alert driver will generally have a faster reaction time compared to a fatigued or drowsy driver.

  • Age: Younger drivers often have quicker reaction times compared to older drivers. Reaction times tend to slow with age.

  • Distractions: Distractions, such as using a mobile phone, eating, or adjusting the radio, can significantly increase reaction time.

  • Alcohol and Drugs: Impairment from alcohol or drugs can greatly slow reaction time and affect decision-making.

  • Visibility and Road Conditions: Poor visibility due to weather conditions (fog, rain) or time of day (night driving) can increase reaction time. Slippery or uneven road surfaces can also affect how quickly a driver can respond.

Research Findings

  • Studies and Experiments: Research studies and experiments often find that under optimal conditions (alert, undistracted drivers), reaction times are typically around 1 second. However, in real-world driving conditions, reaction times can be longer due to the various influencing factors mentioned above.

Improving Reaction Time

  • Stay Focused and Avoid Distractions: Keeping your attention on the road and minimizing distractions can help maintain a quick reaction time.

  • Regular Rest: Ensure you are well-rested before driving to avoid the effects of fatigue on your reaction time.

  • Stay Sober: Avoid driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs to maintain optimal reaction times and decision-making abilities.

  • Regular Health Check-ups: Regular vision and health check-ups can help identify any issues that may affect your reaction time and overall driving ability.


While the typical driver reaction time to traffic lights is generally between 1 and 1.5 seconds, it is essential to consider the various factors that can influence this time. By staying alert, avoiding distractions, and maintaining good health, drivers can help ensure they react as quickly and safely as possible to changing traffic signals.

? Who controls traffic lights?

Traffic lights are typically controlled and maintained by the transportation or traffic engineering department of the local government or municipality. The specific entity responsible for traffic lights can vary depending on the jurisdiction. In many cases, it is the responsibility of the city or town's transportation department or public works department.

These departments are responsible for installing, operating, and maintaining traffic lights to ensure they function properly and effectively manage traffic flow. They may have specialized traffic engineers and technicians who monitor and adjust the signal timings, oversee any necessary repairs or upgrades, and make decisions regarding the installation of new signals or modifications to existing ones.

The transportation or traffic engineering department works in collaboration with other local government agencies, such as law enforcement, to ensure the safe and efficient operation of traffic lights. They consider factors such as traffic volume, pedestrian flow, peak hours, and road conditions when determining the signal timings and coordinating traffic control strategies.

It's important to note that the responsibility for traffic lights may differ based on the jurisdiction and the specific organizational structure of the local government. Some larger cities may have dedicated traffic management departments, while smaller municipalities may delegate the responsibility to their public works or transportation divisions.

? How do traffic lights know when to change?

Modern traffic lights are equipped with sophisticated control systems that use a combination of sensors, timers, and algorithms to determine when to change the signal. The specific mechanism can vary, but here are the common methods used for traffic light control:

  • Fixed-Timing Traffic Lights: Many traffic lights operate on fixed timings. The signal changes at predetermined intervals, and these intervals are programmed into the traffic light control system. The timings are based on factors such as traffic volume, time of day, and historical traffic patterns.

  • Inductive Loop Sensors: Inductive loop sensors are embedded in the road surface at intersections. These sensors create an electromagnetic field, and when a vehicle (or metal object) passes over the loop, it disrupts the field, signaling the traffic light controller that a vehicle is present. This can trigger a change in the signal to accommodate the approaching traffic.

  • Video Detection Systems: Cameras mounted on traffic signal poles are used to monitor the intersection. Advanced video detection systems can analyze the movement and density of traffic. When the system detects a sufficient number of vehicles waiting at a red light or a lack of vehicles on a green light, it can adjust the signal timings accordingly.

  • Radar and Lidar Sensors: Radar and lidar sensors can be used to detect the presence of vehicles and pedestrians. These technologies can provide data to the traffic light controller, helping it determine when to change the signal.

  • Infrared Sensors: Infrared sensors can detect the heat emitted by vehicles. When a vehicle is present, the sensor sends a signal to the traffic light controller, influencing the timing of the signal changes.

  • Connected Vehicle Technology: In some modern systems, vehicles equipped with communication technology can communicate with traffic lights. This allows the traffic light controller to receive real-time data about approaching vehicles and adjust signal timings accordingly.

  • Pedestrian Push Buttons: Pedestrian signals at intersections often include buttons that pedestrians can press to request a signal change. When the button is pressed, it triggers the traffic light controller to include a pedestrian crossing phase in the signal sequence.

The combination of these technologies allows traffic light controllers to adapt to changing traffic conditions and optimize signal timings for the smooth and safe flow of traffic. The specific method used can depend on factors such as the size and complexity of the intersection, local regulations, and available infrastructure.

? Do traffic lights have cameras?

Yes, traffic lights often have cameras installed as part of their infrastructure. These cameras serve various purposes related to traffic management, enforcement, and safety. Here are a few common uses of cameras at traffic lights:

  • Traffic monitoring: Cameras are used to monitor the flow of traffic at intersections. They provide real-time video footage that helps traffic engineers and authorities assess traffic conditions, identify congestion points, and make informed decisions regarding signal timing adjustments or other traffic management measures.

  • Red-light enforcement: Cameras at traffic lights are commonly used for red-light enforcement. These cameras capture images or videos of vehicles that violate red-light signals by entering the intersection after the light has turned red. The recorded evidence can be used to issue traffic citations or penalties to the violators.

  • Intersection surveillance: Cameras installed at traffic lights can serve as a surveillance tool for monitoring intersection activities. They can help authorities identify incidents or accidents, record evidence in case of collisions, and assist in investigating traffic-related incidents.

  • Pedestrian safety: Some traffic lights have cameras that focus on pedestrian crosswalks. These cameras are used to monitor pedestrian activity, ensure pedestrian safety, and detect any violations by drivers, such as failing to yield to pedestrians or blocking crosswalks.

It's important to note that the presence of cameras at traffic lights may vary depending on the jurisdiction and local regulations. Additionally, the specific purposes and uses of the cameras can also vary depending on the local laws and policies. It's advisable to check the local regulations or contact the relevant authorities to understand the specific camera usage and privacy considerations in your area.

? Do traffic lights have sensors?

Yes, traffic lights often utilize sensors as part of their operation. These sensors help detect and manage traffic flow at intersections by collecting data on vehicle presence and traffic conditions. Here are a few common types of sensors used in traffic lights:

  • Inductive loop detectors: Inductive loop detectors are one of the most common types of sensors used in traffic lights. These sensors consist of loops of wire embedded in the road surface at the approach to the intersection. When a vehicle passes over the loop, it creates a change in the inductance, which is detected by the sensor. This information is then used to determine the presence of vehicles and control the signal timings accordingly.

  • Video detection: Some traffic lights employ video-based sensors for vehicle detection. These sensors use cameras mounted near the traffic lights to capture real-time video footage of the intersection. The video feed is processed using image recognition or computer vision algorithms to detect and track vehicles, bicycles, or pedestrians. This data is then used to adjust the signal timings or activate signal changes based on the traffic demand.

  • Radar sensors: Radar sensors use radio waves to detect the presence and movement of vehicles at intersections. These sensors emit radar signals that bounce off the vehicles and return to the sensor, allowing it to calculate the distance, speed, and direction of the vehicles. Radar sensors are often used in situations where inductive loops or video detection may not be feasible or effective, such as in inclement weather conditions or for detecting vehicles at longer ranges.

  • Ultrasonic sensors: Ultrasonic sensors emit high-frequency sound waves that bounce off objects, including vehicles, and return to the sensor. By measuring the time it takes for the sound waves to return, the sensor can detect the presence of vehicles and estimate their proximity to the traffic light. Ultrasonic sensors are commonly used for pedestrian detection at crosswalks.

These sensors help traffic lights respond dynamically to the current traffic conditions, adjusting signal timings to optimize traffic flow and minimize congestion. The specific types of sensors used may vary depending on the intersection's design, traffic volume, and local traffic management practices.

? Who invented the traffic lights?

The traffic light was not invented by a single individual; rather, it evolved over time with contributions from different inventors. However, one of the early versions of the modern traffic light was invented by Garrett Morgan, an African American inventor and entrepreneur.

Garrett Morgan's traffic signal, patented in 1923, was a T-shaped device featuring three positions: "Stop," "Go," and "All Stop." This early traffic signal was manually operated, and a police officer would switch between the positions to control traffic. Morgan's design was an improvement upon earlier traffic signals, and it laid the groundwork for the automated traffic lights we use today.

It's important to note that prior to Morgan's invention, there were other traffic control devices, including manually operated semaphore systems and other signaling mechanisms. However, Morgan's contribution marked a significant step forward in the development of automated traffic signals. Over the years, various inventors and engineers have made improvements to traffic lights, leading to the sophisticated and automated systems we see in use today.

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Street Survival - Advanced Defensive Driving