Street Survival - Advanced Defensive Driving



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Do NOT react to aggressive drivers otherwise the situation can easily escalate to road rage.

🛈 Aggressive drivers can be identified by:

🛈 Info:

💡 Tips:

Thinking Attitude Aggressive

Brake Checking

Goes Wrong

Brake checking is when a driver touches his brakes to slow down or scare the driver behind, however can go horribly wrong for the perpetrator, victim, or even innocent drivers.


Brake checking will definitely irritate the driver behind the perpetrator and can escalate the situation into road rage with more serious outcomes.


Brake checking a truck can have disastrous consequences for the perpetrator as larger, heavier vehicles don't have the ability to slow down a quickly as a regular car.


Purposely cutting-off another driver will not only anger the other driver but also impedes the free flow of traffic which in turn will give rise to other potential hazards.


There are emergency situations where time is critical, however for some road users they feel they have right of way and disregard the rights of other road users.


Following too close to the vehicle ahead will increase the likelihood of a collision or escalate the situation to brake checking and subsequent road rage.

Lane Changing

Constantly changing lanes in order to try and bypass other traffic increases the risk of things going wrong and endangering innocent road users.

Side Swiping

Side swiping another vehicle will have unexpected results as vehicles are thrown out of control.



Pedestrians may lash out and damage the vehicle of a driver that disregards their right of way. 


An occupant of a vehicle may strike at the vehicle of another driver with an object in order to damage the vehicle.


This is where an angered individual throws an object at the vehicle or driver of the vehicle.


A panicked or desperate driver put other road users at risk in order to flee a situation.

🛈 Aggressive driving vs. road rage

Aggressive driving and road rage are related but distinct concepts that describe different types of problematic behaviors on the road. Understanding the distinction between them is important for addressing the underlying causes and finding appropriate solutions. Here's a breakdown of each term:

Aggressive Driving

Aggressive driving refers to a range of behaviors on the road that are unsafe, deliberate, and likely to endanger people or property. It is often motivated by impatience, annoyance, or an attempt to save time. Examples of aggressive driving behaviors include:

  • Speeding or racing

  • Tailgating (driving too closely behind another vehicle)

  • Frequent and unnecessary lane changes

  • Running red lights or ignoring traffic signs

  • Failing to yield the right of way

  • Not signaling when changing lanes or turning

Aggressive driving is generally seen as a traffic offense, and laws defining and penalizing these behaviors vary by jurisdiction.

Road Rage

Road rage is an escalation of aggressive driving that involves deliberate acts of violence or extremely aggressive behavior by a driver angered by the actions of another road user. It is characterized by a personal attack (verbal or physical) against another driver, often in response to a perceived slight or driving error. Road rage can include:

  • Yelling, honking in anger, or making obscene gestures

  • Confronting another driver

  • Using the vehicle as a weapon to intentionally hit another vehicle

  • Exiting the vehicle to physically assault another driver

  • Threatening another driver with a weapon

Road rage is considered a criminal offense in many places, as it involves intentional acts that can harm others.

Key Differences

  • Intensity: Aggressive driving can be seen as a spectrum of risky driving behaviors, while road rage represents the extreme end of this spectrum, involving personal aggression and violence.

  • Legality: Aggressive driving is typically treated as a traffic violation, while road rage can lead to criminal charges due to the intentional endangerment or harm to others.

  • Motivation: Aggressive driving is often motivated by impatience or a desire to save time, whereas road rage is driven by anger and the desire to retaliate or intimidate another driver.


Both aggressive driving and road rage pose significant dangers to road safety. However, road rage is particularly concerning due to its potential for violence and harm. Addressing these behaviors requires a combination of law enforcement, public awareness campaigns, and educational programs that promote patience, empathy, and responsible driving habits among all road users.

🛈 Psychology of aggressive driving

The psychology of aggressive driving delves into the underlying cognitive, emotional, and social factors that contribute to aggressive behaviors on the road. Understanding these psychological underpinnings is crucial for developing strategies to mitigate aggressive driving and enhance road safety. Here's an overview of key psychological aspects related to aggressive driving:

Emotional Factors

  • Anger and Frustration: These are primary emotional drivers of aggressive driving. Situations like traffic congestion, being cut off, or perceived slights can trigger anger, leading some drivers to express this anger through aggressive driving behaviors.

  • Stress: High levels of stress, whether related to driving conditions or external life pressures, can decrease patience and increase irritability, contributing to aggressive driving.

  • Impulse Control: Individuals with lower impulse control may be more likely to engage in aggressive driving behaviors as a spontaneous reaction to road incidents.

Cognitive Factors

  • Risk Perception: Aggressive drivers often have a distorted perception of risk, underestimating the dangers associated with their driving behaviors.

  • Attribution Bias: Aggressive drivers may attribute other drivers' behavior to personal flaws or hostile intentions, rather than to external factors, leading to anger and aggression.

  • Dehumanization: Aggressive drivers may view other drivers less as people with their own needs and more as obstacles to their goals, making it easier to justify aggressive actions against them.

Personality Traits

  • Aggression and Hostility: Individuals with generally aggressive or hostile personality traits are more likely to engage in aggressive driving.

  • Sensation Seeking: Those who seek high levels of stimulation and excitement may find aggressive driving to be a source of thrill.

  • Narcissism: Narcissistic traits, such as a sense of entitlement and superiority, can lead to aggressive driving behaviors, as these individuals may believe traffic rules are less applicable to them.

Social and Environmental Influences

  • Cultural Norms: In some cultures or communities, aggressive driving may be more socially accepted or even encouraged, influencing individual behavior.

  • Modeling: Observing and mimicking aggressive driving behaviors from parents, peers, or media can normalize these actions.

  • Anonymity: The anonymity of being in one's vehicle can embolden individuals to act out aggressively, believing they are less likely to face consequences.

Mitigating Aggressive Driving

Understanding the psychological components of aggressive driving is essential for addressing it effectively. Interventions may include:

  • Educational Programs: Teaching drivers about the dangers of aggressive driving and strategies for managing anger and stress on the road.

  • Law Enforcement: Implementing and enforcing laws to penalize aggressive driving behaviors, thereby increasing perceived risks of such actions.

  • Mental Health Support: Offering resources for individuals to address underlying issues such as anger management, stress, and impulse control.

  • Public Awareness Campaigns: Raising awareness about the consequences of aggressive driving and promoting a culture of patience and respect on the roads.

Addressing the psychology of aggressive driving requires a multi-faceted approach that includes individual, social, and systemic strategies to promote safer driving behaviors and improve road safety overall.

🛈 Aggressive driving and road safety

Aggressive driving poses significant risks to road safety, affecting not only the aggressive drivers themselves but also other road users, including drivers, passengers, pedestrians, and cyclists. Understanding the impact of aggressive driving on road safety and implementing measures to mitigate these behaviors are critical steps toward creating safer roads for everyone. Here are key points regarding the relationship between aggressive driving and road safety, along with strategies for mitigation:

Impact on Road Safety

  • Increased Accident Risk: Aggressive driving behaviors, such as speeding, tailgating, and erratic lane changes, significantly increase the risk of collisions. These behaviors can lead to loss of vehicle control, reduced reaction time to avoid hazards, and increased severity of crashes.

  • Intimidation and Stress for Other Drivers: Aggressive drivers can intimidate other road users, causing stress, confusion, or panic, which may lead to unsafe reactions or accidents.

  • Pedestrian and Cyclist Safety: Aggressive drivers are less likely to yield to pedestrians and cyclists or give them the necessary space, leading to higher risks of accidents involving vulnerable road users.

  • Chain Reactions: One aggressive driver can trigger aggressive responses from others, leading to a chain reaction of unsafe driving behaviors across multiple drivers.

Strategies for Mitigation

  • Law Enforcement and Penalties: Strong enforcement of traffic laws, including the use of speed cameras, increased patrols, and hefty penalties for aggressive driving offenses, can deter aggressive behaviors.

  • Education and Awareness: Educational programs that highlight the dangers of aggressive driving and teach emotional regulation, stress management, and defensive driving techniques can help reduce aggressive driving.

  • Road Design: Implementing road designs that reduce congestion and frustration among drivers, such as adding more lanes, improving traffic flow, or creating separate lanes for bicycles, can help mitigate aggressive driving behaviors.

  • Technology: Advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) such as adaptive cruise control, lane-keeping assist, and collision avoidance systems can help prevent accidents caused by aggressive driving.

  • Cultural Change: Promoting a culture of patience and respect on the roads through public awareness campaigns and community initiatives can lead to more courteous driving behaviors.

  • Reporting Systems: Encouraging the reporting of aggressive drivers to authorities with mechanisms such as hotline numbers or online platforms can help in identifying and penalizing such drivers.


Aggressive driving is a significant threat to road safety, with the potential to cause accidents, injuries, and fatalities. Combating this issue requires a comprehensive approach that includes law enforcement, education, road design improvements, technology, cultural change, and community engagement. By addressing the root causes of aggressive driving and promoting safer, more respectful driving behaviors, societies can work towards significantly reducing road traffic accidents and enhancing the safety of all road users.

💡 Tips when encountering aggressive drivers

  • Stay Calm: When you encounter an aggressive driver it is important to remain calm and not react to their behavior. Do not make eye contact or engage with them in any way.

  • Give Them Space: If you notice an aggressive driver tailgating or weaving in and out of traffic, give them plenty of space. Slow down and let them pass if possible.

  • Avoid Confrontation: Do not engage in any confrontational behavior, such as honking your horn, flashing your lights, or making gestures. This may escalate the situation and put you in danger.

  • Call the Police: If you feel threatened or unsafe, call the police and report the aggressive driver. Provide as much information as possible, including the make and model of their vehicle, their license plate number, and a description of the driver.

  • Stay Focused: Keep your attention on the road and avoid distractions, such as texting or talking on the phone. This will help you stay aware of your surroundings and avoid potential hazards.

Remember, it's important to prioritize your safety on the road. If you encounter an aggressive driver, take the necessary steps to avoid them and report them if necessary.

💡 Tips when you encounter an aggressive driver tailgating you

When encountering an aggressive driver who is tailgating you, it's important to prioritize safety and handle the situation calmly. Here are some steps you can follow:

  • Remain calm: It's crucial to stay calm and avoid escalating the situation. Reacting angrily or engaging in aggressive behavior can make the situation worse.

  • Maintain your speed and position: Keep driving at a consistent speed within the speed limit and maintain your position in the lane. Avoid the temptation to speed up or slow down abruptly, as this may provoke the tailgater or compromise your safety.

  • Create more space: If possible and safe to do so, you can create more distance between you and the tailgater by gradually slowing down and allowing them to pass. Signal your intention by turning on your right indicator to indicate that they can overtake you.

  • Avoid confrontation: Do not engage with the aggressive driver by making eye contact, gesturing, or reacting to their behavior. Focus on your own driving and maintaining a safe distance from them.

  • Find a safe place to pull over: If the tailgating continues and you feel unsafe, look for a well-lit public area such as a gas station, parking lot, or busy street where you can pull over safely. This step should only be taken if you genuinely fear for your safety.

  • Call for help if necessary: If the tailgating persists and you feel threatened or endangered, you can contact the authorities and report the situation. Provide them with a description of the aggressive driver, their vehicle, and any relevant details.

Remember, your safety is paramount, so always prioritize avoiding any potential confrontation or dangerous situations on the road.

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Street Survival - Advanced Defensive Driving